# How to Build a Warp Engine – Warping Space with Energy (2)

## How to Build a Warp Engine -2. Warping Space with Energy

Since all masses are equivalent with a certain quantity of energy ($E=mc^2$), in the GTR Einstein has speculated that the warping of the space is not a consequence of the presence of a mass but can be also made by the presence of an energy field. This is, however not a pure speculation. Nowadays there are more and more discussions on all physics forums that all energy fields also bend the space. Maybe I had never written this book, if personally I was not convinced that this is true indeed. In medicine this effect (called now by physicists, the Woodward effect) is known from decades: the soul of a living person weights a few tens of grams.

Therefore an EM field of sufficient energy can warp the space. For example the warping effect that could be achieved by a laser having a power of 100 kW with a duration of 10 microseconds and a total energy of the laser 1 J, is equivalent to that of a mass of about $10^{-17}$ kg. This is disappointingly small one would say but nonetheless we have something to start with. We will see later in this book how we can take advantage of warping the space with energy fields (EM fields or Lasers) that can be made to vary with time, instead of warping the space with static masses.

One final observation should be made here. We can try to warp the space with something intermediary between static masses and energy fields. That is, we can try electron beams instead of Lasers. There is an obvious advantage in using electron beams, and also a hidden disadvantage. The mass transported by an electron beam of a current of 1 A is about $m=10^{-11}$ kg (which is $10^6$ times bigger than the mass transported by a Laser). Also the speed of the electrons from a beam accelerated at 100 V is just about $10^6 m/s$ which in some cases could be an advantage (remember that at the denominator of the equation showing the warping of the space is $1/v^2$). The disadvantage is that the mass of the individual electron is about $10^{-12}$ times the mass of one photon from the visible spectrum.

So until here, there are just facts that have been verified experimentally with the exception maybe that an energy field has the same effect as its equivalent mass (again this was speculated by Einstein himself and has found a sound basis in the experiments of Woodward trying to generate negative mass – exotic matter).